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ILOTA - Coffee & Tea / Kiến thức cà phê  / Cafe Robusta- Hương vị từ núi rừng

Cafe Robusta- Hương vị từ núi rừng

Đối với các tín đồ Cafe mà nói, Robusta như một ông hoàng- mạnh mẽ, hoang dại. Rất khó để diễn tả vị của một loại cafe, nhưng với Robusta, đó là vị đắng rất đậm, rất mạnh, rất cá tính. Chính vì thế mà trải qua hàng trăm năm, Robusta vẫn ở đó, trong những ly cafe của những nền văn hóa cafe đậm đà.

  1. Nguồn gốc Robusta.

Cafe Robusta hay còn gọi là Cafe vối, tên khoa học là Coffea Canephora.

Vào những năm 1800, giống cafe này được phát hiện đầu tiên ở Bỉ rồi du nhập vào Đông Nam Á sau dịch bệnh rỉ sắt những năm 1900 đã phá tan hoang nông trại cafe Arabica.

Kể từ đó đến nay, Robusta chiếm 30%-40% tổng sản lượng cafe thế giới. Và là sản phẩm cafe chính của ngành xuất khẩu cafe Việt Nam, đưa Việt Nam lên thành một trong những nước xuất khẩu cafe hàng đầu thế giới.

  1. Đặc điểm sinh học.

Robusta thuộc nhóm cây dễ trồng, thường được tìm thấy ở độ cao 0-800m so với mực nước biển. Tuy nhiên lại đòi hỏi lượng mưa khá lớn.

Ưu điểm: Robusta có khả năng chống sâu bệnh như sâu đục thân, bệnh rỉ sắt, các bệnh tuyến trùng… Năng suất cao và chi phí thấp.

Nhược điểm: không có khả năng chịu hán hán và nhiệt độ cao

Chính vì những đặc điểm này mà Robusta khá được nông dân ở các vùng nhiệt đới ẩm ưa trồng.

Ở Việt Nam, giống cafe này được tập trung sản xuất ở vùng Buôn Mê Thuột và Lâm Đồng.

  1. Đặc tính hương vị

Robusta thường được đặt lên bàn cân với Arabica. Đối với nhiều người, Arabica được xem là loại cafe cao cấp hơn. Điều này đôi khi thật bất công

Chứa 7-10% hàm lượng Acid Chlorogenic, cao hơn Arabica là 5.5- 8%, khiến Robusta có vị chua khá gắt. Đặc tính của loại Acid này là nhạy cảm với nhiệt độ. Khi được rang ở nhiệt độ cao nó sẽ phân hủy chậm tạo ra vị đắng đáng kể.

Tuy nhiên, acid là thành phần không thể thiếu trong một ly cafe chuẩn vị. Sự thiếu sót này tạo ra một ly cafe buồn tẻ và thiếu sức sống.

Trong Robusta chứa 2-2.5% hàm lượng caffein, cao gần gấp đôi Arabica. Lượng caffein khá cao tạo nên vị đắng, chát rất mạnh. Vì thế dòng cafe này khá kén người uống. Thường được phái mạnh ưa chuộng hơn cả.

Trong pha chế, người ta thường mix nhiều loại cafe cùng nhau với một tỉ lệ nhất định. Chẳng có công thức cố định nào cả, cũng chẳng hề bày vẽ nhiều, ngẫu nhiên pha, ngẫu nhiên phát hiện một công thức mới. Robusta nếu gặp đúng người pha chế, sẽ tự nhiên mà tỏa hương.

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